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Asymptomatic malaria infections and Pfmdr1 mutations in an endemic area of Nigeria

Dokunmu, Titilope M. and Adjekukor, Cynthia Ufuoma and Yakubu, Omolara Faith and Bello, Oluwakemi A. and Adekoya, Jarat O. and Akinola, Olugbenga and Amoo, Emmanuel O. and Adebayo, H. A. (2019) Asymptomatic malaria infections and Pfmdr1 mutations in an endemic area of Nigeria. Malaria Journal, 18. pp. 1-7.

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Background: Malaria eradication globally is yet to be achieved and transmission is sustained in many endemic countries. Plasmodium falciparum continues to develop resistance to currently available anti-malarial drugs, posing great problems for malaria elimination. This study evaluates the frequencies of asymptomatic infection and multidrug resistance- 1 (mdr-1) gene mutations in parasite isolates, which form the basis for understanding persistently high incidence in South West, Nigeria. Methods: A total of 535 individuals aged from 6 months were screened during the epidemiological survey evaluating asymptomatic transmission. Parasite prevalence was determined by histidine-rich protein II rapid detection kit (RDT) in healthy individuals. Plasmodium falciparum mdr-1 gene mutations were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) followed by restriction enzyme digest and electrophoresis to determine polymorphism in parasite isolates. Sequencing was done to confirm polymorphism. Proportions were compared using Chi-square test at p value < 0.05. Results: Malaria parasites were detected by RDT in 204 (38.1%) individuals. Asymptomatic infection was detected in 117 (57.3%) and symptomatic malaria confirmed in 87 individuals (42.6%). Overall, individuals with detectable malaria by RDT was significantly higher in individuals with symptoms, 87 of 197 (44.2%), than asymptomatic persons; 117 of 338 (34.6%), p = 0.02. In a sub-set of 75 isolates, 18(24%) and 14 (18.6%) individuals had Pfmdr1 86Y and 1246Y mutations. Conclusions: There is still high malaria transmission rate in Nigeria with higher incidence of asymptomatic infections. These parasites harbour mutations on Pfmdr1 which contribute to artemisinin partner drug resistance; surveillance strategies to reduce the spread of drug resistance in endemic areas are needed to eliminate the reservoir of malaria parasites that can mitigate the eradication of malaria in Nigeria

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Asymptomatic malaria, Pfmdr1, Drug resistance, Plasmodium falciparum, Nigeria
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences
Depositing User: Mrs Patricia Nwokealisi
Date Deposited: 10 Mar 2020 10:17
Last Modified: 10 Mar 2020 10:17

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