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Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant assessment of Yoyo bitters

James-Okoro, Paula-Peace O. and Iheagwam, Franklyn N and Sholeye, Mariam I. and Umoren, Itoroobong A. and Adetuyi, Babatunde O and Ogundipe, Adebanke E. and Braimah, Adefoyeke A. and Adekunbi, Tobi S and Ogunlana, Oluseyi Ebenezer and Ogunlana, Olubanke Olujoke (2021) Phytochemical and in vitro antioxidant assessment of Yoyo bitters. World News of Natural Sciences (An International Scientific Journal), 37. pp. 1-17. ISSN 2543-5426

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In this paper, herbal bitters are widely used due to their numerous acclaimed health benefits in many Nigerian homes; however, many have not been subjected to scientific scrutiny. The aim of this study was to determine the phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity of a non-alcoholic polyherbal formulation, Yoyo bitters, towards validating its broad pharmacological claims. The phytochemical components of Yoyo bitters were ascertained by phytochemical screening assays and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The antioxidant activity was investigated in vitro using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenging activity, total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. Qualitative phytochemical analysis of Yoyo bitters showed the presence of saponins, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, cardiac glycosides and anthocyanins. The total phenols, flavonoids, flavanols, tannins and carotenoids content were 14.741 ±0.64 mg GAE/ml, 0.152 ±0.01 mg RE/ml, 0.437 ±0.02 mg RE/ml, 0.368 ±0.04 mg TAE/ml and 0.016 ±0.00 mg CAE/ml respectively. GC-MS chromatogram revealed the presence of forty-three (43) phytochemical compounds with D-allose (41.81%), 1,6-anhydro-beta-D-glucofuranose (24.15%), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (8.02%) and Z-6-pentadecen-1-ol acetate (3.50%) as the most abundant constituents. Yoyo bitters demonstrated effective antioxidant activity against DPPH and H2O2 with IC50 values of 0.492 mg/ml and 0.629 mg/ml respectively compared to ascorbic acid of 0.161 mg/ml and 0.130 mg/ml respectively. Total antioxidant capacity and ferric reducing antioxidant power of Yoyo bitters were 0.432 mg AAE/ml and 2.236 mg AAE/ml respectively. This study validates the antioxidant capacity of Yoyo bitters and provides chemical basis for its acclaimed pharmacological actions.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Yoyo herbal bitters, GCMS, phytochemical analysis, antioxidant assay, in vitro
Subjects: Q Science > QH Natural history
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences
Depositing User: Mrs Patricia Nwokealisi
Date Deposited: 12 Aug 2021 15:48
Last Modified: 12 Aug 2021 15:48

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