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Amoo, Temitope Emmanuel and Covenant University, Theses (2021) PREDICTION OF CARDIOVASCULAR RISK: 2-D SIMULATION OF ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUE GROWTH IN IDEALISED HUMAN CAROTID ARTERY. Masters thesis, Covenant University Ota..

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Atherosclerosis is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There is a dearth of data and complexity in scientific research to predict the severity of the disease, the period of crisis and hemodynamic conditions that can lead to a stroke. This work focused on plaque growth in a 2-D carotid artery model that is dependent on the hemodynamics: wall shear stress (WSS), and the mechanical plaque response: plaque wall stress (PWS). A linear two-dependent-variable plaque growth model was used to simulate the rate of initiation and progression of the plaque overtime. The COMSOL Multiphysics v5.5 software was used to solve the fluid / solid dynamics problems where PWS and WSS values where extracted. The WSS and PWS showed a strong dependence on blood velocity and pressure. Increased blood velocity was associated with increased WSS and PWS, this resultantly led to a decrease in plaque growth rate. Maximum stenosis degree was 30 % after 5 years of exposure of 30 cm/s average blood inlet velocity, whereas the minimum of 22 % was obtained for average blood inlet velocity of 45 cm/s. The effect of increased blood pressure was more eminent at the root and regions on the arterial wall distal from the plaque neck, where increased blood pressure caused an increased WSS and PWS. Maximum stenosis degree was 32 % after 5 years of exposure of 1500 Pa average outlet pressure, whereas minimum stenosis of 29.5 % was obtained for average outlet pressure of 0 Pa for the same period. Variations in blood velocity had a more significant effect on plaque growth in relation to variations in blood pressure. Plaque progression had an inverse relationship with blood velocity, however a direct relationship of plaque growth with pressure was found. Higher plaque heights showed dangerously high PWS and WSS that could cause a potential rupture of plaque around regions localized at the root of the plaque. At stenosis degrees from 50 % and above, maximum WSS and PWS obtained were 580 Dyne /cm2 and 33 kPa respectively, of which the WSS value shot above the threshold of 112 Dyne/cm2, hence indicating plaque rupture risks. People that experience higher blood pressure and low velocity were at higher risk of atherosclerosis progression and ultimately a stroke crisis. It would be recommended that more patient-specific studies based on these models should be considered and studied in future.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Subjects: T Technology > TP Chemical technology
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics > School of Engineering Sciences
Depositing User: Mrs Patricia Nwokealisi
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2022 16:18
Last Modified: 31 Jan 2022 16:18

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