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Food safety evaluation in boarding schools in Zaria, Nigeria, using the HACCP system

Oranusi, S. U. and Galadima, M and Umoh, V.J and Nwanze, P. I. (2007) Food safety evaluation in boarding schools in Zaria, Nigeria, using the HACCP system. Scientific Research and Essay, 2 (10). pp. 426-433. ISSN 1992-2248

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A systematic evaluation of food safety was carried out in five boarding schools in Zaria, Kaduna State. The analysis consisted of investigating hazards associated with microbial contamination and critical control points (CCPs) in the preparation and handling of foods in the schools. Food and water samples as well as swabs of food contact surfaces were collected in addition to animal droppings found in or near the food preparation areas and transported to the laboratory for further investigations. Enterotoxin production by Bacillus cereus and Escherichia coli strains was performed on New Zealand white rabbits using the ileal loop technique. All the foods (akamu, eba, tuwo and vegetable soup) attained cooking temperatures of 60 – 100oC capable of destroying vegetative forms of food borne pathogens. However, a concentration of 3 - 5log10 cells of B. cereus, 2 - 3log10 cells Staphylococcus aureus and 1- 2log10 coliforms were isolated per 100 g/ml of some of the cooked foods. The water samples for drinking, cooking and washing dishes were contaminated with coliforms below 2 log10 cells/ml. The food and water samples were found to have counts within acceptable limits but the isolation of enterotoxigenic strains of B. cereus and Escherichia coli, hazards such as inadequate (5 - 10 min) time/temperature exposure of foods (akamu, tuwo, eba), high level initial contamination associated with raw foods, food ingredients, food contact surfaces, food handlers and inadequate cleaning of food utensils call for concern. Critical control points are frying and steaming of akara and moimoi respectively, manipulation of foods after cooking, and holding of cooked foods. The improvement of the personal hygiene of the handlers and the environment using hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) could help in ensuring safety of foods served in the boarding schools.

Item Type: Article
Uncontrolled Keywords: Hazards, contamination, HACCP, CCP, boarding school, enterotoxin production, food safety.
Subjects: Q Science > Q Science (General)
Q Science > QH Natural history > QH301 Biology
Divisions: Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences > School of Biological Sciences
Depositing User: Mrs Hannah Akinwumi
Date Deposited: 16 Mar 2015 15:31
Last Modified: 16 Mar 2015 15:31

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