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Biodiesel Fuel from Differently Sourced Local Seed Oils: Characterization, Effects of Catalysts, Total Glycerol Content and Flow Rates

Adekoya, J. A. (2013) Biodiesel Fuel from Differently Sourced Local Seed Oils: Characterization, Effects of Catalysts, Total Glycerol Content and Flow Rates. International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, 4 (6). pp. 654-660. ISSN 2229-5518

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Abstract

The recently observed depletion in the petroleum resources, which also mainly constituted carbon dioxide emission and global warming problems call for renewable and sustainable alternative fuels. Oils were extracted from various seeds: Jatropha curcas (Botuje), Pentaclethra macrophylla (Apara) and soybean, using petroleum ether (40-60℃). Alkali catalyzed transesterification of the oils (biodiesel pro-duction) in the presence of different kinds of alcohol (methanol, ethanol and propanol) were carried out using sodium hydroxide as catalyst. In the case of Jatropha oil, potassium hydroxide served as catalyst. Effect of catalysts to obtain optimum biofuel was established. In the case of soybean oil, fatty acid methyl ester, FAME, (96%), fatty acid ethyl ester, FAEE, (84%) and fatty acid propyl ester, FAPE, (37.50%) were pro-duced. In waste palm kernel oil, methyl ester (72.92%) and ethyl ester (46.25%) were obtained. In refined palm kernel oil, methyl ester (70.83%), ethyl ester (66.67%) and (14.17%) propyl ester were produced. However, only methyl ester conversion (20.83%) was possible in Pen-taclethra macrophylla oil. In Jatropha curcas using KOH catalyst, only methyl ester (80%) formation was possible. Moreover, yields were af-fected as the alcohol alkyl became bulkier giving relatively lower value of biodiesel. Sulphur content (0.01) obtained for each of the biofuel was satisfactory when compared with ASTM standard (0.05 maximum). The cetane value of soybean oil (45.5), refined palm kernel oil (46) and used oil (44.6) were quite reasonable compared with the special standard (47). The combustion energy of the fuels from refined palm kernel oil, waste palm kernel oil and soybean are 39, 36 and 45.5 respectively. The total glycerol content (Gc) of the methyl and ethyl esters emanat-ed from soybean are quite reasonable and fell within standard

Item Type: Article
Subjects: Q Science > QD Chemistry
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics > School of Chemistry
Depositing User: Dr Joseph Adeyemi Adekoya
Date Deposited: 14 Apr 2015 10:03
Last Modified: 14 Apr 2015 10:03
URI: http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/id/eprint/4796

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