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Spectral Responses and Classification of Earth’s Features on Satellite Imagery

Oniemayin, Babatunde I. and Tenebe, I.T. and Emenike, PraiseGod C and Busari, A. A. and Bamigboye, Gideon and Daramola, Kofoworola (2016) Spectral Responses and Classification of Earth’s Features on Satellite Imagery. In: 3rd International Conference On African Development Issues (CU-ICADI), May 9- May 11 2016, Covenant University, Ota, Nigeria.

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Abstract

This Remote sensing is fast becoming one of the most successful techniques in studying and classifying land-cover classes. Satellite remote sensing technology has provided environmental managers with a relatively cheap and accessible technique to accurately classify earth’s features into common groups based on the similarities in behavior of their component structures. As the sun’s electromagnetic light energy reaches earth surface, they are either absorbed and/or re-radiated into the atmosphere, depending on the component and structure of the receiving surface. The extent of absorption or radiation also depends on these components. Space satellite sensors are able to determine the wavelengths of light energy absorbed and reflected by the earth’s surface. This paper assesses how three dominant land cover types (vegetation, water bodies and built-up areas which include buildings, pavements and tarmacs) usurp electromagnetic radiation, how satellite sensors are able to measure the radiation wavelengths and how RS technology uses data obtained by remote sensors which measure wavelengths of absorbed and reflected energy. The paper also presents the spectral response of these land cover types and their corresponding mathematical indices; Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Normalized Difference Water Index and Normalized Difference Built-up Index (NDVI, NDWI and NDBI). The paper shows that vegetation absorbs most of the visible light in the electromagnetic spectrum (red and blue) but has a high reflectance in the near-infrared (NIR) band of the electromagnetic spectrum. This is because infrared light inhibits photosynthesis causes desiccation. Deep water bodies, on the other hand, quickly absorb NIR and red wavelengths, and reflects blue wavelength back into the atmosphere. These indices can be used to compute and determine specific land cover types from a constellation of several land cover categories on satellite imageries. LandSat-8 imagery of Nantucket Island, state of Massachusetts, USA was used for the computation.

Item Type: Conference or Workshop Item (Paper)
Uncontrolled Keywords: Remote sensing, Spectral response, Electromagnetic radiation (EMR), Spectral indices, Satellite imagery
Subjects: T Technology > TA Engineering (General). Civil engineering (General)
Divisions: Faculty of Engineering, Science and Mathematics > School of Civil Engineering and the Environment
Depositing User: Mrs Hannah Akinwumi
Date Deposited: 01 Jul 2016 09:16
Last Modified: 01 Jul 2016 09:16
URI: http://eprints.covenantuniversity.edu.ng/id/eprint/6720

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